stat, wstat – inquire or change file attributes|
size Tstat tag fid|
size Rstat tag stat[n]
size Twstat tag fid stat[n]
size Rwstat tag
The stat transaction inquires about the file identified by fid.
The reply will contain a machine-independent directory entry,
stat, laid out as follows:|
sizetotal byte count of the following data
typefor kernel use
devfor kernel use
the type of the file (directory, etc.), represented as a bit vector
corresponding to the high 8 bits of the file’s mode word.|
version number for given path|
the file server’s unique identification for the file|
name[ s ]
uid[ s ]owner name
file name; must be / if the file is the root directory of the
gid[ s ]group name
muid[ s ]
Integers in this encoding are in little-endian order (least significant
byte first). The convM2D and convD2M routines (see fcall(3)) convert
between directory entries and a C structure called a Dir.
The mode contains permission bits as described in intro(9P) and
the following: 0x80000000 (DMDIR, this file is a directory), 0x40000000
(DMAPPEND, append only), 0x20000000 (DMEXCL, exclusive use), 0x04000000
(DMTMP, temporary); these are echoed in Qid.type. Writes to append-only
files always place their data at the end of the file; the
offset in the write message is ignored, as is the OTRUNC bit in
an open. Exclusive use files may be open for I/O by only one fid
at a time across all clients of the server. If a second open is
attempted, it draws an error. Servers may implement a timeout
on the lock on an exclusive use file: if the fid holding the file
open has been unused for an extended
period (of order at least minutes), it is reasonable to break
the lock and deny the initial fid further I/O. Temporary files
are not included in nightly archives (see Plan 9’s fossil(4)).
The two time fields are measured in seconds since the epoch (Jan
1 00:00 1970 GMT). The mtime field reflects the time of the last
change of content (except when later changed by wstat). For a
plain file, mtime is the time of the most recent create, open
with truncation, or write; for a directory it is the time of the
most recent remove, create, or
wstat of a file in the directory. Similarly, the atime field records
the last read of the contents; also it is set whenever mtime is
set. In addition, for a directory, it is set by an attach, walk,
or create, all whether successful or not.
The muid field names the user whose actions most recently changed
the mtime of the file.
The length records the number of bytes in the file. Directories
and most files representing devices have a conventional length
The stat request requires no special permissions.
The wstat request can change some of the file status information.
The name can be changed by anyone with write permission in the
parent directory; it is an error to change the name to that of
an existing file. The length can be changed (affecting the actual
length of the file) by anyone with write permission on the file.
It is an error to attempt to set the
length of a directory to a non-zero value, and servers may decide
to reject length changes for other reasons. The mode and mtime
can be changed by the owner of the file or the group leader of
the file’s current group. The directory bit cannot be changed
by a wstat; the other defined permission and mode bits can. The
gid can be changed: by the
owner if also a member of the new group; or by the group leader
of the file’s current group if also leader of the new group (see
intro(9P) for more information about permissions, users, and groups).
None of the other data can be altered by a wstat and attempts
to change them will trigger an error. In particular, it is illegal
to attempt to change the owner
of a file. (These conditions may be relaxed when establishing
the initial state of a file server; see Plan 9’s fsconfig(8).)
Either all the changes in wstat request happen, or none of them
does: if the request succeeds, all changes were made; if it fails,
A wstat request can avoid modifying some properties of the file
by providing explicit “don’t touch” values in the stat data that
is sent: zero-length strings for text values and the maximum unsigned
value of appropriate size for integral values. As a special case,
if all the elements of the directory entry in a Twstat message
are “don’t touch” values, the
server may interpret it as a request to guarantee that the contents
of the associated file are committed to stable storage before
the Rwstat message is returned. (Consider the message to mean,
“make the state of the file exactly what it claims to be.”)
A read of a directory yields an integral number of directory entries
in the machine independent encoding given above (see read(9P)).
Note that since the stat information is sent as a 9P variable-length
datum, it is limited to a maximum of 65535 bytes.
name of the user who last modified the file
Stat messages are generated by fsdirfstat and fsdirstat (see 9pclient(3)).
Wstat messages are generated by fsdirfwstat and fsdirwstat.|
To make the contents of a directory, such as returned by read(9P),
easy to parse, each directory entry begins with a size field.
For consistency, the entries in Twstat and Rstat messages also
contain their size, which means the size appears twice. For example,
the Rstat message is formatted as “(4+1+2+2+n) Rstat tag
n (n-2) type
dev...,” where n is the value returned by convD2M.|